About COVID-19

Questions and Answers Regarding COVID-19

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause disease in humans and animals. In humans, it usually causes respiratory tract infections, ranging from the common cold to serious illnesses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). A new type of coronavirus found in humans since an extraordinary event appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, was later named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2), and caused Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).
The nomenclature system established for naming and tracing the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 by GISAID, Nextstrain and Pango is currently and will remain in use by scientists and in scientific research. To aid public discussion of variants, WHO brought together a group of scientists from the WHO Virus Evolution Working Group (now called the Technical Advisory Group on Virus Evolution), the WHO COVID-19 reference laboratory network, representatives from GISAID, Nextstrain, Pango and additional experts in virology, nomenclature. microbes and communications from several countries and agencies to consider easy-to-pronounce and non-stigma labels for VOIs and VOCs. Currently, this expert group formed by WHO has recommended the use of the Greek Alphabet letters, namely Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta which will be easier and more practical to be discussed by non-scientific audiences.

Given the continuous evolution of the viruses leading to SARS-CoV-2 and the constant developments in our understanding of the impact of variants, this working definition may be adjusted periodically. If necessary, variants that do not meet all of the criteria outlined in this definition may be designated as VOCs/VOIs/VUM
COVID-19 is caused by SARS-COV2, which belongs to the same large family of coronaviruses that caused SARS in 2003, only with a different type of virus. The symptoms are similar to SARS, but the death rate for SARS (9.6%) is higher than for COVID-19 (less than 5%), although the number of cases of COVID-19 is much higher than that of SARS. COVID-19 also has a wider and faster spread to several countries than SARS.
Common symptoms include fever 38°C, dry cough, and shortness of breath. If there are people who, within 14 days prior to the appearance of these symptoms, have traveled to an infected country, or have cared for/close contact with a person with COVID-19, then that person will be subjected to further laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis. The list of affected countries can be monitored through this website.
Like other respiratory illnesses, COVID-19 can cause mild symptoms including a runny nose, sore throat, cough, and fever. About 80% of cases recover without the need for special treatment. About 1 in every 6 people may develop severe illness, such as with pneumonia or difficulty breathing, which usually develops gradually. Although the mortality rate for this disease is still low (around 3%), the elderly, and people with pre-existing medical conditions (such as diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease), are usually more prone to becoming ill. critical. Looking at developments to date, more than 50% of confirmed cases have been declared to be improving, and the cure rate will continue to increase.
A person can be infected from a person with COVID-19. This disease can spread through small droplets (droplets) from the nose or mouth when coughing or sneezing. The droplets then fall on nearby objects. Then if someone else touches an object that has been contaminated with these droplets, then that person touches the eyes, nose or mouth (triangle of the face), then that person can be infected with COVID-19. Or it could be someone who is infected with COVID-19 when they accidentally inhale droplets from an infected person. This is why it is important for us to keep a distance of at least one meter from people who are sick. Until now, experts are still conducting investigations to determine the source of the virus, the type of exposure, and the mode of transmission. Stay tuned for accurate and official sources of information regarding the progression of the disease.
The main mode of transmission of this disease is through small droplets that are released when someone coughs or sneezes. The WHO currently assesses that the risk of transmission from someone who has no symptoms of COVID-19 is very unlikely. However, many people who are identified as COVID-19 experience only mild symptoms such as a mild cough, or do not complain of pain, which may occur in the early stages of the disease. Until now, experts are still conducting investigations to determine the transmission period or incubation period of COVID-19. Stay tuned for accurate and official sources of information regarding the progression of the disease.
Not. Until now, research has shown that the virus that causes COVID-19 is transmitted through contact with small droplets from the respiratory tract.
COVID-19 is caused by a type of virus from the large Coronavirus family, which is commonly found in animals. Until now, the source of the animal that transmits COVID-19 is unknown, experts continue to investigate the various types of animal that transmit it.
Currently, there is no evidence that pets such as dogs or cats can be infected with the COVID-19 virus. However, it is much better to always wash your hands with soap and water after contact with pets. This habit can protect you against a variety of common bacteria such as E.coli and Salmonella that can pass between pets and people.
It's not known exactly how long COVID-19 can survive on the surface of an object, although preliminary studies suggest that COVID-19 can last up to several hours, depending on the type of surface, temperature or humidity of the environment. But simple disinfectants can kill the virus making it impossible to infect people again. And make it a habit to wash your hands with water and soap, or an alcohol-based hand rub, and avoid touching your eyes, mouth or nose (triangle of the face) more effectively to protect yourself.
Yes, there are. Check the About Vaccine page to find out the types.
No, antibiotics only work against bacteria, not viruses. Because COVID-19 is caused by a virus, antibiotics cannot be used as a means of prevention or treatment. However, if you are hospitalized and diagnosed with COVID-19, you may be given antibiotics, as secondary infections are often caused by bacteria.
People who live or travel in areas where the COVID-19 virus circulates are particularly at risk of infection. Those infected are people who within 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms had traveled from an infected country, or who were in close contact, such as family members, co-workers or medical personnel who treated patients before they knew the patient was infected with COVID-19. Health care workers caring for patients infected with COVID-19 are at higher risk and must consistently protect themselves with appropriate infection prevention and control procedures.
People infected with COVID-19 and influenza will experience the same symptoms of respiratory infections, such as fever, cough and runny nose. Although the symptoms are the same, the causes of the virus are different, so it is difficult for us to identify each of these diseases. Accurate medical examinations accompanied by referrals for laboratory tests are needed to confirm whether a person is infected with COVID-19. It is strongly recommended that anyone who has a fever, cough and difficulty breathing seek immediate treatment, and notify health care workers if they have traveled from an affected area in the 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms, or if they have had close contact with someone who is suffering from the disease. symptoms of respiratory tract infection. There is no age limit people can be infected by this coronavirus (COVID-19). However, older people, and people with pre-existing medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure) appear to be more prone to developing severe illness..
People infected with COVID-19 and influenza will experience the same symptoms of respiratory infections, such as fever, cough and runny nose. Although the symptoms are the same, the causes of the virus are different, so it is difficult for us to identify each of these diseases. Accurate medical examinations accompanied by referrals for laboratory tests are needed to confirm whether a person is infected with COVID-19. It is strongly recommended that anyone who has a fever, cough and difficulty breathing seek immediate treatment, and notify health care workers if they have traveled from an affected area in the 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms, or if they have had close contact with someone who is suffering from the disease. respiratory tract infection symptoms.
Yes, it's safe. The person receiving the package is not at risk of contracting the COVID-19 virus. From experience with other coronaviruses, we know that this type of virus does not survive long on inanimate objects, such as letters or packages.
Since February 5, 2020, Indonesia has imposed travel restrictions to China in the form of a temporary suspension of flights to and from China. On March 5, 2020, Indonesia also imposed a ban on transit or entry to Indonesia for travelers who within the previous 14 days came from the following areas:
Iran : Tehran, Qom, Gilan
Italy: Regions of Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Marche and Piedmont
South Korea: Daegu City and Gyeongsangbuk-do Province.
WHO closely monitors the current situation and regularly publishes information about this disease. Further information about this disease and a list of affected countries can be found via: WHO Online Coronavirus Info.
Some ways that can be done to prevent the transmission of this virus are: Maintaining health and fitness so that the body's stamina remains excellent and the immune system / immune system increases. Wash your hands properly regularly using soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub. Washing hands thoroughly besides being able to kill viruses that may be on our hands, this action is also one of the easy and inexpensive actions. About 98% of the spread of disease comes from the hands. Therefore, maintaining hand hygiene is very important. When coughing and sneezing, cover your nose and mouth with a tissue or the inside of your upper arm (not your palm). Avoid contact with other people or traveling to public places.
Avoid touching the eyes, nose and mouth (triangle of the face). Hands touch many things that can be contaminated with the virus. If we touch our eyes, nose and mouth with contaminated hands, the virus can easily enter our body. Use the mask properly to cover your mouth and nose when you are sick or in public. Dispose of used tissues and masks in the trash properly, then wash your hands. Postponing travel to areas/countries where this virus is found.
Avoid going outside when you feel unwell, especially if you have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. Immediately contact the nearest health workers, and ask for their help. Tell the officer if in the previous 14 days you have traveled, especially to an infected country, or have had close contact with people who have the same symptoms. Follow directions from local health officials. Always monitor the progress of the COVID-19 disease from official and accurate sources. Follow directions and information from health workers and the local Health Service. Information from the right sources can help you protect yourself from the transmission and spread of this disease.
The use of masks is only for people who have symptoms of respiratory infection (coughing or sneezing), suspecting COVID-19 infection with mild symptoms, those caring for people with symptoms such as fever and cough, and health workers. The most effective way to protect yourself and others from transmitting COVID-19 is to wash your hands regularly, cover your mouth when coughing with your elbow or tissue, and keep a distance of at least one meter from people who are sneezing or coughing.
If you are not in a COVID-19 affected area, or if you have not traveled from one of these areas, or have not had close contact with someone who has COVID-19 symptoms or is feeling unwell, you are less likely to catch COVID-19. However, it is understandable that you may feel stressed and anxious about the current situation. Stay calm and don't panic. Seek true and accurate information about the development of COVID-19 so that you are aware of the situation in your area and you can take reasonable precautions. If you are in an area with COVID-19, you have to take the risk seriously. Always take care of your health and pay attention to information and advice from the health authorities.
Of course it's safe, but still pay attention to health and personal hygiene. Wear a mask if you are unwell or in a crowd, always wash your hands after handling objects or shaking hands.
For the current condition, a person cannot be given a COVID-19 free certificate, because we never know whether he has been in contact with someone who is sick with COVID-19.
WHO closely monitors the current situation and regularly publishes information about this disease. Further information about this disease and a list of affected countries can be found at: WHO Online Coronavirus Info.
Media of education and information as well as the situation of the development of COVID-19 can be monitored through the Health Ministry's website for Preparedness to Face COVID-19 Infection.

Variants of concern (VOC)

WHO  
Label
Pango  
Lineage
GISAID clade Nextstrain clade  Changes in additional amino acids are monitored ° Initial Documentation Sample  Appointment date  

Alpha 

B.1.1.7 

GRY

20I (V1) 

+S:484K
+S:452R

United Kingdom,  
Sep-2020 

18-Dec-2020

Beta 

B.1.351 

GH/501Y.V2  20H (V2) +S:L18F
South Africa,  
May-2020 
18-Dec-2020
Gamma 

P.1 

GR/501Y.V3  20J (V3) +S:681H Brazil,  
Nov-2020 
11-Jan-2021
Delta 

B.1.617.2

G/478K.V1  21A, 21I, 21J

+S:417N

+S:484K

India,  
Oct-2020 
VOI: 4-Apr-2021 
VOC: 11-May-2021
Omicron* B.1.1.529 GRA 21K, 21L +R346K Several Countries, Nov-2021

VUM: 24-Nov-2021

VOC: 26-Nov-2021

*Includes all lineages. See cov-lineages.org and the website Pango networkfor more details.


Variants of interest (VOI)

WHO Label  Pango  
Lineage*
Clade GISAID Nextstrain  
clade 
Early Documented   
sampel 
Appointment date 

Lambda

C.37

GR/452Q.V1

21G

Peru, Des-2020

14-Jun-2021
mu B.1.621 GH 21H Kolombia, Jan-2021 30-Ags-2021
*Includes all lineages. See cov-lineages.org and the website Pango networkfor more details.


Variants under monitoring(VUM)

Pango  
Lineage* 
Clade GISAID Nextstrain  
clade 
Early Documented  
Sampel 
Appointment date 
AZ.5 # GR - Several Countries,
Jan-2021

VUM: 02-Jun-2021

C.1.2 GR - South Afrika, Mei 2021 01-Sep-2021
B.1.617.1 §  G/452R.V3  21B India, Okt-2020  
VOI: 4-Apr-2021 
VUM: 20-Sep-2021
B.1.526 §   GH/253G.V1 21F 
United States of America,  
Nov-2020 
VOI: 24-Mar-2021 
VUM: 20-Sep-2021 
B.1.525 §  G/484K.V3  21D Several Countries, 
Des-2020 
VOI:17-Mar-2021
VUM: 20-Sep-2021 
B.1.630 GH - Republic of Dominica, Mar-2021 12-Oct-2021
B.1.640 GH/490R
- Republic of the Congo, Sep-2021 22-Nov-2021
*Includes all lineages. See cov-lineages.org and the website Pango networkfor more details.


Updated SARS-CoV-2 classification, geographic distribution of VOCs, and summary of their phenotypic characteristics (transmission, disease severity, risk of reinfection, and impact on vaccine diagnostics and performance) based on published studies, regularly provided at WHO Weekly Epidemiology Update


Source : https://www.who. int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants

Important Info